The most abundant terpene in Hops, Hemp & Cannabis. Myrcene is described as having an aroma that is earthy and citrusy with nuances of mango, mint, clove & tropical fruit. Like other terpenes, Myrcene is touted to enhance the entourage effect of cannabinoids. Synergistically working with THC, CBD compounds "or on it’s own" its relieving and peaceful effects enhance the treatment of many physiological ailments.
Sensory: Clove, musk, peppery, spicy, mint, mango, tropical fruit
Effects: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-microbial, antibiotic, relaxant, anti-stress, sleep aid, muscle relaxant, sedative, pain relief.
Caryophyllene is a spicy-sweet terpene with a woody, clove-like aroma. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and has potential anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiseptic properties. Caryophyllene is unique because of its ability to bind to the CB2 receptors in our endocannabinoid system after being consumed orally. Our ECS receptors are located throughout our body and many terpene compounds are being shown active on them.
Sensory: Strong spicy, sweet, earthy, woody, peppery, citrusy
Effects: Pain relief, anti-inflammatory, relieve muscle spasms, anti-seizure, sedative, anti-anxiety, sleep aid, antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-tumor, glucose balancing, activates CB2 & ECS receptors
Humulene, caryophyllene & myrcene, are the most common terpenes found in Hops, Hemp & Cannabis. The therapeutic usages of the humulene trace back to ancient Chinese herbal therapies. Chinese ginseng containing humulene is touted for boosting energy.
Sensory: Earthy, spicy, peppery, floral, bitter
Effects: Anti-inflammatory, arthritis, bursitis, fibromyalgia, raspatory inflammation, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, appetite suppressant, anti-bacterial.
Valencene is found most abundantly in citrus fruits, Chinese bayberry is a natural source of valencene and is valued in China as a medicinal herb and an edible fruit. Research is emerging on the therapeutic properties of valencene, but there have been indications that the terpene may offer anti-inflammatory, skin protectant and anti-allergic benefits.
Sensory: Heavy citrus, orange, tangerine, mango, grapefruit, woody, herbal.
Effects: Anti-inflammatory, skin protectant and anti-allergic, anti-cancer
Limonene is a colorless liquid and is the major component in the oil of citrus fruit peels. Its zesty citrus fragrance, primarily lemon, but also in orange, lime, and grapefruit. The terpene has also been explored for its many and varied therapeutic uses. Limonene is common as a dietary supplement and as a fragrance ingredient for cosmetics products.
Sensory: Zesty citrus, lemon, lime, orange, grapefruit
Effects: Pain relief, anti-inflammatory, muscle relaxant, reduces muscle spasms, digestive aid, skin protectant, anti-depressant, anti-stress, anti-anxiety, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, allergy suppressant, balances glucose levels.
This terpene has a floral scent and is found in over 200 plants such as lavender, ginger, and birch trees, to name a few. The soothing aroma is why it is used in the treatment of anxiety and it is said to help relieve stress, depression, and provides relief from seizures.
Sensory: Floral, spicy
Effects: Anti-anxiety, stress relief, anti-depressant, anti-seizure, insomnia relief, reduces convulsions, pain relief, calming, soothing.
The scent of this terpene is forest-like and has been compared to pine trees. Pinene can be found in trees, mandarin oranges, black pepper, celery, etc. It is anti-inflammatory and antiseptic. This terpene has been said to help with memory loss and aids in alertness. It has been used in the treatment of anxiety, MRSA, ulcers, to name a few. Furthermore, pinene has been used to open the airways in the respiratory system of asthma sufferers.
Sensory: Pine needles, spicy, woody, resinous pine,
Effects: Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, memory enhancement, alertness, anti-anxiety, kills MRSA, reduces ulcer growth, bronchodilator & asthma relief, anti-depressant.
Terpinolene a terpene with a potentially strong sedative effect, terpinolene in tea tree oil may also be effective as an antifungal agent and as a shield against various bacteria. These sedative properties may, in turn, reduce anxiety as the body and mind simultaneously calm. Still, much more research is needed to come to any conclusions.
Sensory: Woody, sweet pine, citrus
Effects: anti-oxidant, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, sedative
α-Farnesene and β-farnesene Colourless to pale green-yellow liquid. While it is not considered one the primary terpenes in cannabis, farnesene has a number of health benefits. Found in turmeric, farnesene has anti-inflammatory properties as well as tumor-inhibiting traits and could be helpful in treating colon and pancreatic cancers.
Sensory: Fruity, green apple
Effects: Anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-tumor, calming, tranquilizing, reduces muscle spasms.
An organic compound derived from mint oils. This waxy, crystalline terpene occurs naturally in mint plants including peppermint and spearmint, although it can also be produced by other plants. Because of its cooling sensation, due to an ability to chemically trigger cold receptors in the skin, menthol is widely used to relieve throat irritation and minor external pain.
Sensory: Minty, spicy
Effects: Pain relief, anti-inflammatory, digestive aid, skin protectant, reduces respiratory inflammation.
One of the most common sources of phytol is in green tea varieties, including matcha and sencha. If you take vitamin supplements E or K, or a multivitamin that contains these, then you have probably experienced phytol. This terpene is known for its antioxidant properties. Studies have concluded that phytol could be a good candidate for the treatment or prevention of oxidative stress
Sensory: Grassy aroma
Effects: Anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, anti-anxiety, relaxant, sedative
Isoborneol is frequently used to flavor baked goods, so you may have tasted the terpene in a carrot cake, gingerbread cookie, or other spicily sweet desserts. Hard candies with fruit flavors may also contain isoborneol as an additive. Beverages such as orange and grape soda could be a liquid source of isoborneol. Finally, isoborneol may be an ingredient in certain insect repellants.
Sensory: Spicy, woody
Effects: Neuro protective, anti-microbial, anti-viral, anti-tumor
Cedrene is a natural ingredient in the essential oil of cedar. Rather than tapping into juniper and cypress trees, the ancient civilizations of the Middle East derived their oil directly from the cedar tree. The ancient Egyptians harvested the oil for various practical applications including as an insecticide
. In modern times, cedarwood oil may still serve this purpose as a pesticide
as well as a fragrance booster in aromatherapy candles and sprays.
Sensory: Woody, spicy
Effects: Anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, reduces muscle spasms, reduces raspatory inflammation
Bisabolol is a monocyclic sesquiterpene produced by numerous varieties of cannabis, chamomile, and the Brazilian candeia tree. This terpene, also called levomenol, has been used in cosmetics for centuries due to its reported skin-healing properties.
Sensory: Sweet, floral
Effects: Anti-inflammatory, skin protectant, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, allergy suppressant
You have experienced fenchol any time you have sprinkled dry basil into a pot of tomato sauce or enjoyed a salad containing fresh basil. Fenchol’s aroma may have drifted into your senses if you have held a bouquet of aster flowers. You may also have encountered fenchol when lathering your hair with an herbal shampoo or misting your wrists with citrus body spray.
Sensory: Lemon, lime, earthy, piney
Effects: Anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-fungal, analgesic
Cymene is found in so many plants and plant oils you may have unknowingly dabbled with cymene in your kitchen. Thyme oil is tangy and nutty, Anise tastes of licorice. Some prepared foods may contain cymene as a food additive or flavoring agent. Cymene is also a component of pepper spray.
Sensory: Tangy, nutty, spicy
Effects: Pain relief, anti-inflammatory, neuro protective, anti-oxidant, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, anti-tumor
Carene is a natural compound in turpentine, rosemary, and cedar. Carene is used as a raw material in personal products. Include cosmetics, perfumes, and aromatherapy, though its presence in these products appears to be largely beneficial, it may irritate the skin, eyes, and lungs.
Sensory: Sweet-citrus, pineapple
Effects: Anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, bone health
Camphene is a colorless crystal used as a fragrance or to texturize resins and lacquers. Camphene is also used as a food additive to enhance flavors. Camphene’s historical uses include fuel for lamps in the 19th century. After the mid-19th century, kerosene replaced camphene as the fuel of choice for lamps. But at one time, camphene was the primary source of fuel for lamps and preferred as a cheaper alternative to whale oil.
Sensory: Pungent pine, herbal, dank
Effects: Pain relief, anti-Inflammatory, reduces respiratory inflammation, anti-oxidant, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial
Pulegone occurs naturally in catnip, peppermint candies are another source of pulegone, as are certain other members of the mint family. Perfumes and aromatherapy products with a cool, fresh scent may also incorporate pulegone. The terpene has been as a brew for tea and to flavor alcoholic beverages and baked goods.
Effects: Psychostimulant, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant, memory, energy
Geranyl is found in a remarkable variety of botanicals. Almond seeds, celery, and coffee are some of natural sources of Geranyl. Geranyl is a component of more than 60 essential oils, including lemongrass, coriander, sassafras, and geranium.
Senrory: Floral aroma, pear, banana, peach, apple, citrus
Effects: Anti-microbial, anti-fungal, analgesic, Pain relief, anti-inflammatory, digestive aid, anti-tumor.
Honeybee sent glands produce Geraniol to mark nectar-bearing flowers and to guide them to the entrance to their hives. Geraniol is used as a flavoring agent for many fruit-based products, cough drop and hard candies. Geraniol is a primary component of citronella oil and rose oil.
Sensory: Rose aroma
Effects: Anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant, skin protectant, regulates blood pressure.
Ocimene is naturally occurring in the essential oil of basil. Ocimene scent, it is not a favorite among insects, thus certain insecticides thus this terpene in their products. Ocimene is found in various plants and fruits. Mint, parsley, tarragon, kumquats, and mangos are a few of the natural sources of ocimene.
Sensory: Citrusy, fruity, sweet woody aroma, lavender, metallic scent
Effects: Anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, skin protectant, regulates blood pressure.
ˈbȯr-nē-ˌȯl , -ˌōl
terpene derivative (23)
Borneol is common in traditional Asian medicine. Borneol has also proven effective as an anti-coagulant for stroke patients, and may increase the effectiveness of other drugs. Borneol is used to facilitate digestion, improve circulation, and ease pain brought on by rheumatic diseases.
Sensory: Woody, camphor-like aroma
effects: Pain relief, anti-inflammatory, digestive aid, reduces respiratory inflammation, anti-stress, anti-viral, anti-tumor, balances glucose levels.
Citronellol is well known as an effective mosquito repellent and has long been used in perfume and beauty products. Research into its medical uses is growing, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and cardiovascular regulating agent. “citrus-scented” skin-care product are usually scented with citronellol.
Sensory: Floral and citrus
Effects: Anti-inflammatory, digestive aid, regulates blood pressure, anti-tumor
\ neˈrȯləˌdȯl, -räl-, -dōl\
A sesquiterpene present in the essential oil of many plants and flowers, such as lavender and jasmine. Nerolidol is the primary scent compound of a species of orchid native to Mexico. Nerolidol has been used as a natural sleep aid due to its purported sedative properties. Nerolidol may also be beneficial in combating pests that harm humans and plants.
Sensory: Floral or woody aroma
Effects: Anti-fungal, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-anxiety, relaxant, sedating, neuro protective, skin protectant.
(1) Myrcene. (2020)
(2) Caryophyllene. (2021)
(3) Humulene. (2021)
(4) Valencene. (2021)
(5) Limonene. (2021)
(6) Linalool. (2020)
(7) Pinene. (2021)
(8) Terpinolene. (2020)
(9) Farnesene. (2020)
(10) Menthol. (2021)
(11) Phytol. (2021)
(12) Isoborneol. (2021)
(13) Cedrene. (2021)
(14) Bisabolol. (2020)
(15) Fenchol. (2020)
(16) Cymene. (2020)
(17) Carene. (2021)
(18) Camphene. (2020)
(19) Pulegone. (2021)
(20) Geranyl. (2021)
(21) Geraniol. (2021)
(22) Ocimene. (2021)
(23) Borneol. (2021)
(24) Citronellol. (2021)
(25) Nerolidol. (2020)